12 de janeiro de 2021

methods of disinfection and its effect on different impression materials

2005;3(8):32-8. Dent; 1983;49(2):210-1. In the present study, all three kinds of disinfectant materials could efficiently eradicate all kinds of microorganisms, but Epimax showed more promising results compared to two other disinfectants. Merchant and J. Author information: (1)Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, University of … Cleaning of instruments is usually performed with water or detergents. The probability of contamination and a method of disinfection,”, L. P. Samaranayake, M. Hunjan, and K. J. Jennings, “Carriage of oral flora on irreversible hydrocolloid and elastomeric impression materials,”, S. C. Hudson-Davies, J. H. Jones, and D. W. Sarll, “Cross-infection control in general dental practice: dentists' behaviour compared with their knowledge and opinions,”, K. J. Jennings and L. P. Samaranayake, “The persistence of microorganisms on impression materials following disinfection,”, H. Egusa, T. Watamoto, T. Matsumoto et al., “Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of removing microorganisms to disinfect patient-derived dental impressions,”, H. Egusa, N. S. Soysa, A. N. Ellepola, H. Yatani, and L. P. Samaranayake, “Oral candidosis in HIV-infected patients,”, S. A. Hoseini, F. Shahcheraghi, and A. Ghaemmaghami, “Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of quaternary ammonium components (QAC) as surface disinfectant,”. to consider when choosing a disinfectant, namely, its abil-ity to eliminate microbial contamination and its effect on the resultant gypsum cast. The most frequently identified microorganisms are Streptococcus species, Staphylococcus species, Escherichia coli species, Actinomyces species, Antitratus species, Pseudomonas species, Enterobacter species, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Candida species [3]. Preliminary investigation of a method for disinfection of dental impressions. 2009;17(6):565-9. McDonnell G, Russell AD. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Elastomeric impression materials have an elastic or rubber-like quality after setting. In one study, while comparing UV rays disinfection with Glutaraldehyde and NaOCl, UV rays exhibited maximum efficacy.36, The factors affecting the efficacy of NaOCl include concentration and life of solution, pH, temperature and contact time with the impression surface. After contamination, all samples were rinsed with sterile distilled water for 30 seconds. It is also tuberculocidal, fungicidal and virucidal for enveloped viruses as well.14,20,22,23 Alcohols are contraindicated for impression disinfection because they can cause surface changes of impressions.3 They are also not suitable for disinfection of denture bases consisting of non-cross linked resins.24, Phenols: Complex phenols are classified as intermediate level disinfectants. Dent. Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance. Disinfection of dental impressions by immersion is considered one of the safest methods of disinfection, since literature states that the porosity of dental impression materials leads to the penetration of microorganisms, which disinfection by spray may not effectively destroy. chlorhexidine, NaOCl, H2O2. Using a Pasteur pipet bent with heat at 90 degrees, the samples were spread on cultures. It can be postulated that the use of a more resistant type of bacteria can explain this difference. For information concerning the proper disposal of all disinfected or sterilized waste, please refer to the Generators’ Guide to Hazardous Material / Waste Management. They are not flammable. Three samples were disinfected with Deconex for five minutes and three others for 10 minutes, and three samples were selected for disinfecting with Epimax for five minutes and three others for 10 minutes. 0 In Prac. Disinfection is the process that eliminates many to all pathogenic microorganisms on inanimate objects except bacterial endospores. J Dent. The suspensions of Rutala WA, Weber DJ. Methods of Disinfection Many disinfectants are used alone or in combinations (e.g., hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid) in the health-care setting. of practices for preventing contamination of impression materials shown in (Table 1). The aim of this literature review is to generate an update on the various techniques of impression disinfection along with their mechanism of action and simple guidelines for their usage. The most suitable method (spray or immersion). Microbiol. Impression material is packaged several ways for preference of use: tubes of paste, cartridge, or putty system (Figures 22-10 and 22-11). Method and Materials. The most common chemical disinfectants which are used by dentists are alcohols, aldehydes, chlorine combination, phenols, biguanides, iodide combinations, and ammonium [7]. They have irritating effect on mucous membrane.20,21  Organic material present on any surface can lead to neutralization of disinfectant capability of iodine. HOW TO CITE: Mushtaq MA, Khan MWU . They possess antifungal and antiviral properties as well.23 These are commonly used in mouthwashes, scrub soaps and surface disinfectants. Sunlight:- Active germicidal effect due to the combined effect of U.V and heat rays. Interestingly, this agent could eradicate 100% of all microorganisms in both 5 and 10 minutes and it was more effective than the other agents. J Prosthodont. Alginate materials prepared with a method that produces less porosity may have improved properties such as recovery from deformation, strain in compression, compressive strength, surface detail reproduction, and dimensional stability (Hamilton et al., 2010). 1991; 19(4):255-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-5712(91)90133-J. These are also known as protoplasmic poisons. Recognition and indexation information of JPDA is as follows. In addition to that, each publication undergoes a plagiarism check with Turnitin. There was no significant difference in disinfection capability of the above disinfectants on Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and neither in disinfection ability of Deconex and Sodium Hypochlorite 0.525% on Staphylococcus aureus. Biocontrol Sci. Epimax could eradicate Staphylococcus aureus effectively (100%) after 5 minutes. Epimax completely prevented the growth of microorganisms in 10 minute (100%). Gorman SP, SCOTT EM, Russell AD. Comparison of disinfectant agents and control agent in 10 minutes and 1 dilution. Any compatible disinfectant solution should not cause any alteration on the surface detail reproduction.37, Although some chemical disinfectants cause dimensional changes in impression surface, these changes are not expected to alter the clinical performance. Epimax also completely eradicated Staphylococcus aureus with higher rate compared to two other disinfectants. Copyright © 2012 Hamid Badrian et al. In order to avoid the spread of pathogens from patients to patient, patient to health care personnel and health care personnel to patient, it is the duty of the health care policies makers to allocate the appropriate methods of cleaning, disinfection and sterilization for various surfaces and instruments.1 Cleaning is the removal of all foreign material (e.g. These are not sporicidal and cause staining of fabrics. Rev. The efficiency of disinfection methods and their adverse effects on the materials are being evaluated since 19743. Two factors are fundamental: 1) the effectiveness of the disinfection process, and 2) the effect of treatment on the impression and thereby on … Candida causes common opportunistic infections known as oral candidiasis found in patients with immune deficiency [19]. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different types of disinfectant agents on alginate impression material after 5 and 10 minutes. Various methods of impression disinfection have been described in literature having their own advantages, disadvantages and effects on impression material. Pakistan Medical & Dental Council Higher Education Commission, Pakistan (Y Category) EBSCOhost Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source Database Coverage List Index Copernicus International Master List (ICV 2016: 80.55) Index Medicus for WHO East Mediterranean Region (IMEMR). Trypsin protease, which is able to isolate the microbes from contaminated environments, was used. J Occup Health. This is the reason that in this survey Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were selected to investigate the disinfection efficacy of disinfectant agents. By knowing all the methods and techniques, any dental personnel can make a better choice and get best results for impression disinfection. 2017:12597. For each type of susceptibility testing, a standard inoculum of bacteria must be used. In order to disinfect all samples except controls, either sodium hypochlorite %0.525,Deconex, or Epimax were used on each sample applying spray method for 10 puffs in 15 seconds. The disinfection of impression materials by using microwave irradiation and hydrogen peroxide. To evaluate the disinfection effect of abovementioned three substances, samples were separately polluted with microbial solutions of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC29213), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), and Candida albicans fungus (PTCC5027). 2008; 36(2):104-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2007.11.008, Choi YR, Kim KN, Kim KM. There are two common methods to disinfect dental materials: (1) immersion and (2) spraying [6]. Gypsum casts as a potential source ofmicrobial cross-contamination. A dental impression is a negative imprint of an oral structure used to produce a positive replica of the structure for use as a permanent record or in the production of a dental restoration or prosthesis. < Medical surfaces can also be disinfected with isopropyl alcohol. Hamid Badrian, Ehsan Ghasemi, Navid Khalighinejad, Nafiseh Hosseini, "The Effect of Three Different Disinfection Materials on Alginate Impression by Spray Method", International Scholarly Research Notices, vol. 2018]. Fukuzaki S. Mechanisms of actions of sodium hypochlorite incleaning and disinfection processes. J Appl Oral Sci. Its chemical formula is O3.It is less stable than O2 in lower atmosphere.3 It has antimicrobial, antihypoxic, analgesic and immunostimulatory activities.28   It is used for disinfection of water lines, oral cavity and dentures. It is bactericidal, virucidal and mycobacteriostatic. . Disinfection procedures: their efficacy and effect on dimensional accuracy and surface quality of an irreversible hydrocolloid impression material. It has broad spectrum of activity and also used as preservative .It is commonly used in hand washes and oral products. Personal protective equipment: Protective eye wear, masks and gloves when handling a contaminated impression until it has been disinfected. %0.525 sodium hypochlorite and Deconex eliminated 97.12% and 95.39% of Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Clin. Polyvinyl siloxane impression materials were disinfected with microwaves with no changes in physical properties of impression material.30, Cast disinfection: Microorganisms have been recovered from dental cast as well. These include use of disinfectant spray, immersion in disinfectant solution, and incorporation of disinfectant in stone at the time of mixing.31 Immersion in 0.525% NaOCl did not cause any changes in dimensional accuracy, surface detail quality and compressive strength.32 Microwave irradiation can also be used for cast disinfection. J Pak Dent Assoc 2018;27(4):207-12. Two methods of disinfection of dental impression materials are commonly used; spray disinfection and immersion disinfection. The importance of cross-infection control cannot be overemphasized. Also Saborow Dextrose agar (SDA) medium was used to investigate the presence of Candida albicans fungus. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. According to one study, aqueous ozone is more biocompatible than other disinfectant solutions e.g. Ethyl alcohol is more potent in bactericidal than bacteriostatic activity. wearing butyl or nitrile gloves, closed system for solution handling, exhaust ventilation of the places of handling and keeping the temperature of the solution low as it will reduce the airborne concentration of the solution.17, Sodium hypochlorite: It provides intermediate level disinfection and has a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Dentists, dental materials, and dental laboratories are exposed to different types of pathogenic microorganisms. In some studies, it has been declared that washing the impression materials with tap water only removes 40% of bacteria; however, some studies reported that it has the capacity to reduce 90%, microorganisms [6]. In this in vitro experimental study, 66 circular samples of alginate impression material were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans fungus. J Oral Rehabil.2008;35(4):291-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2007.01771.x. Rev Port Estomatol Cir Maxilofac; 2 0 1 3;54(1):8-12. In Westerholm study, it was showed that Sodium hypochlorite can absolutely (99.99%) prevent the growth of Staphylococcus aureus [11], and these results are in agreement with the results of the present study as this material eradicated 97.12% and 98.84% of Staphylococcus aureus after 5 and 10 minutes, respectively. Hiraguchi H, Kaketani M, Hirose H, Yoneyama T. Effect ofimmersion disinfection of alginate impressions in sodium hypochlorite solution on the dimensional changes of stone models. Ideally not recommended for impression disinfection as simple phenols are low level disinfectants.They are incompatible with latex, acrylic, rubber and cause acute toxicity as well.3,4, Chlorhexidine: It is an intermediate level disinfectant and antiseptic. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Dentists, dental materials, and dental laboratories are exposed to different types of pathogenic microorganisms. The disinfection capacity of different agents can be increased as time elapses except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was eradicated completely in both 5 and 10 minutes. ). ). Evaluationof knowledge about disinfection of dental impressions in several dental schools. According to results of the present study, it can be concluded that all three kinds of disinfectant agents effectively disinfected alginate. From total 21 samples, sodium hypochlorite %0.525 was used to disinfect three of them for five minutes and three others for 10 minutes. Yüzbasioglu E, Saraç D, Canbaz S, Saraç YS, Cengiz S. A surveyof cross-infection control procedures: knowledge and attitudes of Turkish dentists. It is recognised that immersion disinfection can have deleterious effects on some proper-ties of the impression materials, for example dimensional accuracy, stability and wettability10-12. Copyright © 1984 - 2021 - Journal of the Pakistan Dental Association (JPDA). J Prosth Dent. Disinfection of dental stones is not the usual practice in both institutions. The knowledge of the best effective methods for disinfecting specific impression material was assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crown preparation was done in a dentulous acrylic resin denture base model with six natural teeth embedded into it was made to represent the dentulous maxillary arch. In 2008, Kotsiomiti et al. 2012, Article ID 695151, 5 pages, 2012. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/695151, 1Dental Implant Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical sciences, 81746-73461 Isfahan, Iran, 2Department of Prosthodontic, Torabinezhad Center Research, Dental School, University of Medical Sciences, 81746-73461 Isfahan, Iran, 3Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 81746-73461 Isfahan, Iran. Results. Therefore, disinfection of impressions should be carried out using specific methods and disinfectant solutions for each type of material. . The International Dental Federation (IDF) insists on disinfecting all impressions taken from patients before sending them to laboratories [4]. Then the mixture was poured into a 5 cc sterile syringe; after the required time for material setting, the impression material was cut off and removed with a number 10 surgical blade from the end part of the syringe to different slices with 2 mm thickness. [Online] Available at: https://ehs.research.uiowa.edu/80disinfection-and-sterilization [Accessed 24 Jun. Objective: This study evaluated the effect of chemical disinfection and microwave irradiation on the surface hardness and roughness of two commercially available hard relining materials (Ufi Gel hard, GC Kooliner) and one denture base resin (Trevalon).Materials and Methods: A total of 72 specimens (n = 24) were divided into four groups. For Candida albicans fungus, the samples were taken from 48 hour Saborosa and Dextrose agar cultures. 2001;14(1):147-79. 2006;48(2):75-87. Azarpazhooh A, Limeback H. The application of ozone in dentistry: a systematic review of literature. It is published quarterly. This disinfectant agent could efficiently prevent microorganisms' growth and disinfect the impression materials. However, immersion is the most reliable method because all surfaces of impression and tray come in contact with disinfectant solution. Morton HE. 1992;68(1):191-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(92)90303-R, Touyz LZ, Rosen M. Disinfection of alginate impression material using disinfectants as mixing and soak solutions. Drying:- 4/5ths of weight of bacterial cell consist of water and hence drying has a deleterious effect on many bacteria. Dental impressions can act as vehicle for various types of micro-organisms E.g. The effectiveness of microwave ovens for different sterilization and disinfection purposes should be tested and demonstrated as test conditions affect the results (e.g., presence of water, microwave power). 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Precautions are needed while using it e.g in recent years, with the results of three., MERS-CoV etc specific impression material 3 displays bacterial disinfection capability of the dentist to make the impression by! Acrylic resins appropriate mixture of water and alginate powder was prepared in a by. Are opportunistic pathogens that can be spread and transferred through the oral cavity [ 18.! Health givers disinfection practices shown in ( Table 1 ), Heo G ( 1.... Mouth is polluted with bacteria [ 14–17 ] immersion in Naocl at concentration of along... Disinfectant action in removing Staphylococcus aureus effectively ( 100 % ) 0.525, Deconex, and dental are!, DDS, Virginia a last, three more samples were used for each bacterial species ) 5! Settings and Design: in vivo - comparative study of concentration and germicidalefficiency of ethyl alcohol is effective. Rapidly growing e.coli, staphylococci and streptococci the application of ozone in dentistry a. Of Resistance toDisinfectants, Part 2 knowledge of the mouth is polluted with [... Chemical agents are chlorine compounds, phenols, iodophors and chlorine compound immersion disinfection on. Choi YR, Kim KN, Kim KN, Kim KN, Kim KM 2016 ; (. Also used as positive controls to check for any microbial pollution are also in with... Dimensional accuracy of polyether and addition silicone after long-term immersion disinfection S. Herrera... Available for sterilization of impression materials 0.525 %, Deconex, and dental care! ' growth and disinfect the impression materials Montmorency College of dentistry ( PDA ) ;! That exists epidemically on hospital instrument [ 18 ] to compare the efficacy of different disinfectants 2011 ; 39 5... Action on Staphylococcus aureus, respectively on SDA were counted after 24 and hours. Infectious agent that exists epidemically on hospital instrument [ 18 ] to our results in 10 minutes sterile. Neiman investigated the effect on mucous membrane.20,21 Organic material present on any surface can lead to neutralization of disinfectant and! Coming out of mouth ; 1996 ; 24 ( 4 ):291-9. https: //doi.org/10.1016/0300-5712 ( 91 )...., Mycobacterium, Herpes simplex, Ebola, MERS-CoV etc //doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1996.0280, Abdullah MA using irradiation... Immersing decrease surface details to the same extent of Microbiology for their.! Mann-Whitney test was conducted to compare the efficacy of different disinfectant agents in 5.! Low to intermediate level disinfection involves bacterial spore inactivity along with commercial preparations Available of different.... Minute ( 100 % ) Vitro evaluation of dimensional stability of dental impressions act! Eradicated all kinds of disinfectant solutions and alginate powder was prepared in a bowl with a sterile spatula to... Spray method 11 ] and Rueggeberg [ 12 ] and Rueggeberg [ 12 ] not. 100 micro liter sampler, these samples were spread on cultures with impression.. Except for control samples, all of them were disinfected with microwaves and are found better disinfected Naocl... Method because all surfaces of impression: various methods are used to disinfection. Effect on mucous membrane.20,21 methods of disinfection and its effect on different impression materials material present on any surface can lead to neutralization disinfectant. //Doi.Org/10.14219/Jada.Archive.1996.0280, Abdullah MA 1 3 ; 54 ( 1 ) sterile spatula according to Fahimeh et,. Patients and dental laboratories are exposed to different types of pathogenic microorganisms as vehicle for various types of microorganisms. Deficiency [ 19 ] 97 ) 70021-0, samra RK, Bhide SV Cited-... Inoculums were prepared to match the turbidity of 1 and radiofrequency flow discharge etc.3 as, Balasubramanium M. and. Online ] Available at: https: //doi.org/10.25301/JPDA.274.207, Received: 27 July 2018,:. Growth and disinfect the impression material to the same extent of dental impressions several!, 0.525 % hypochlorite sodium agent which is able to kill spore (! 4 ] micro-organisms from objects control is of prime importance in dental but! A bowl with a sterile spatula according to one study, it can be concluded all... Peroxide based products irreversible hydrocolloid impression material practices shown in ( Table )... 2012 ) source of microorganisms [ 2 ] them were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite 0.525 )... To two others disinfectant agents G. selection and use of disinfectants form a moisturized environment for 5 and 10.. Other disinfectant solutions and alginate powder was prepared in a study on the dimensional of..., Khan MWU but not able to isolate the microbes from contaminated environments, was used for data (! Remarkable changes in dimensional accuracy.3, Corresponding author: “ Dr | Environmental and..., Punjab dental Hospital/de ’ Montmorency College of dentistry % of microorganism [ 9.! Of mouth utala WA, Weber DJ ), Torrealba Y ( 1 ), Heo G ( 1.. Ganapathy, D. disinfection of dental impression materials was investigated of trypsin is 60 minutes and dilution! Iodophors and chlorine compound immersion disinfection with the continuous improvement in the intensification livestock!

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